|All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.|
|SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY|
|Further Education and Training Certificate: Phlebotomy Techniques|
|SAQA QUAL ID||QUALIFICATION TITLE|
|59345||Further Education and Training Certificate: Phlebotomy Techniques|
|SGB Phlebotomy Technicians|
|PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY||NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK|
|HPCSA - Health Professions Council of South Africa||OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework|
|Further Ed and Training Cert||Field 09 - Health Sciences and Social Services||Curative Health|
|ABET BAND||MINIMUM CREDITS||PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL||NQF LEVEL||QUAL CLASS|
|Undefined||120||Level 4||NQF Level 04||Regular-Unit Stds Based|
|REGISTRATION STATUS||SAQA DECISION NUMBER||REGISTRATION START DATE||REGISTRATION END DATE|
|LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT||LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT|
|In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.|
This qualification replaces:
|Qual ID||Qualification Title||Pre-2009 NQF Level||NQF Level||Min Credits||Replacement Status|
|48732||Further Education and Training Certificate: Phlebotomy Techniques||Level 4||NQF Level 04||134||Complete|
|PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION|
The purpose of this Qualification is to develop learner competence in performing Phlebotomy Techniques within a blood donor clinic and a medical pathology environment. The qualification is for any individual who is or wishes to be involved in the medical environment.
Learners working towards this Qualification will find that the acquisition of competence in the Unit standards, which make up the Qualification, will increase the opportunity for employment, add value to their job and fulfill the need for phlebotomy services. This entry-level Qualification is intended to enhance the provision of phlebotomy services within the medical environment. Learners obtaining this Qualification will be able to advance the interests of their employers through their interaction with the public who come into contact with the organisation/institution.
This qualification will provide the broad knowledge; skills and values needed in the medical environment and will facilitate access to-and mobility and progression within-education and training.
It will also serve as a platform to progress along a learning path for learners who:
The Unit standards included in the Qualification are intended as building blocks for the further development of skills that will make the learner a more informed and efficient phlebotomist.
The focus of this qualification is to enable learners to be competent in a range of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values including:
The intention of this Qualification is to:
It is also important to note that a learner, on completion of the qualification, must register with the relevant statutory health council in order to work as a phlebotomist.
Note: All procedures and processes in phlebotomy are undertaken according to workplace protocols and, where applicable, according to relevant legislation.
The FET Certificate: Phlebotomy Techniques has been designed to meet the phlebotomy needs of the pathology and blood transfusion sectors of the medical health field as well as the needs of those learners who have an interest in and desire to make phlebotomy their chosen career path. There is a steadily increasing shortage of phlebotomists in the country. In meeting this need, more learners will have access to employment, thereby contributing to the strengthening of the country's economy.
Phlebotomy services are essential by their very nature and there is a constant demand to assist patients/donors/clients. Phlebotomy services required by the pathology and blood transfusion sectors revolve around obtaining blood and non-blood specimens for analysis in order to aid in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of disease. The prevalence of HIV and AIDS and other related diseases has resulted in an increased need for phlebotomy services. This Qualification has made it possible for standardised phlebotomy training to become available, thus increasing the mobility of learners within the medical environment.
This qualification will address these concerns whilst providing the qualifying learner with the flexibility to pursue a career in the medical health field. The learner having completed this Qualification will have the opportunity to pursue related Qualifications at higher levels of the NQF. Hence, competencies in this entry-level Qualification constitute the basis for further learning. The qualification also fulfills the objectives of the NQF by providing learners with opportunities for mobility and progression in this and other related fields. This Qualification has made possible the introduction of phlebotomy services to areas where it has not previously been available.
|LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING|
|Learners wishing to study towards this qualification are assumed to have:
Recognition of Prior Learning:
The structure of this Unit standard-based Qualification makes the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) possible, if the learner is able to demonstrate competence in the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes implicit in this Qualification.
Learners who already work in the medical environment and who believe that they possess the competencies to enable them to meet all of the outcomes listed in the unit standards will be able to present themselves for assessment against the unit standards of their choice. Once found competent, these learners will be certified as competent and credited accordingly. Recognition of Prior Learning can also be conducted for these learners at qualification level, by means of Integrated Assessment.
RPL will allow for accelerated access to further learning and gaining of credits towards the qualification. All RPL ought to be carried out by the provider in agreement with the relevant ETQA or another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in place with the relevant ETQA.
|RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING?|
|The Qualification consists of a Fundamental, a Core and an Elective Component.
To be awarded the Qualification, learners are required to obtain a minimum of 120 credits as detailed below.
The Fundamental Component consists of Unit Standards in:
It is compulsory therefore for learners to do Communication in two different South African languages, one at Level 4 and the other at Level 3.
All Unit Standards in the Fundamental Component are compulsory.
The Core Component consists of Unit Standards to the value of 54 credits all of which are compulsory.
The Elective Component consists of Unit Standards to the value of 31 credits. Learners are to choose Unit Standards to the minimum of 10 credits.
|EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES|
|I. Collect blood and non-blood specimens for medical purposes.
2. Apply the principles of customer care in the medical pathology and blood transfusion fields.
3. Use knowledge of HIV and AIDS to provide pre-test information and support.
4. Interact professionally and ethically within a human rights framework.
Critical Cross-field Outcomes:
The Critical Cross-field Outcomes are addressed throughout the qualification and accompanying unit standards.
Identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, community to:
Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsively and effectively when:
Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information to:
Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentation to:
Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and the health of others by:
Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that the problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when engaging with adverse reactions and interacting with patients' queries.
|ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA|
|Associated Assessment Criteria Exit Level Outcome 1:
1.1 Body systems are described in terms of anatomy and physiology.
> Range: 'Body systems' refer only to systems associated with the collection of blood and non-blood specimens.
1.2 Medical terminology associated with the relevant body systems is described for use in clinical laboratories.
1.3 Blood and non-blood specimens are handled in accordance with legal and organizational prescripts.
> Range: 'Handle' refers to collecting preparing storing and/or transporting to a processing facility.
1.4 Patients are informed about the required procedures for the self-collection of non-blood specimens.
1.5 Specimens are evaluated to assess suitability for analysis.
1.6 Infection control and safety policies and procedures are recognized as essential and are adhered to at all times.
Associated Assessment Criteria Exit Level Outcome 2:
2.1 Communication skills appropriate to the context are applied when interacting with customers.
2.2 Customers' needs, expectations, and areas of dissatisfaction are managed according to company policy in a manner that indicates knowledge of the impact of poor customer service on the organisation and on the customer.
> Range: 'Customers' refers to internal and external customers.
2.3 Medical terminology related to the phlebotomy and blood transfusion field is correctly used, whilst simultaneously ensuring that the customer understands the terminology.
Associated Assessment Criteria Exit Level Outcome 3:
3.1 Knowledge of HIV ands AIDS and the legal requirements pertaining to HIV testing is applied in all patient/donor interactions.
3.2 Communication skills appropriate to the context are demonstrated during interactions with patients/donors.
3.3 Patient/donor decision is accepted in a non-judgemental manner, documented and acted upon in terms of company policy.
Associated Assessment Criteria Exit Level Outcome 4:
4.1 The application of relevant legislation and the principles of medical ethics is evidenced during all patient/donor/client interactions.
4.2 The rights of patient and donors are acknowledged at all times and their knowledge of their responsibilities is ensured.
4.3 The consequences of unprofessional and/or non-compliant behaviour is understood in terms of its impact on patients and the organization.
The term `Integrated Assessment` implies that the theoretical and practical components should be assessed together. During integrated assessments the assessor should use formative and summative assessment methods and assess combinations of practical, foundational and reflexive competencies (applied competence).
Assessment of communication and numeracy should be conducted in conjunction with other aspects and should use authentic phlebotomy contexts wherever possible.
A variety of methods must be used in assessment, and tools and activities must be appropriate to the context in which the learner is working. Where it is not possible to assess the learner in the workplace, simulations, case studies, role-plays and other similar techniques should be used to provide a context appropriate to the assessment.
Note that all assessment methods/instruments must be agreed upon/approved by the ETQA or ETTQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding in place with the relevant ETQA.
This kind of assessment will typically take place during training and serves to guide the learner towards full competence. Assessment can be done in any agreed-upon method of assessment of the knowledge required to perform the various competencies.
The following methods can be used:
For the learner to be certified competent against the qualification, he/she must prove competence through the integration of the competencies expressed in the unit standards. The elements of importance are problem-solving capabilities and the creation of a safe environment.
The following methods can be used:
The learner's ability to demonstrate all the competencies in the unit standard, under real-life working conditions and in the presence of an assessor, will be adequately assessed.
Workplaces are used for assessment purposes provided that the appropriate facilities, equipment, and support systems are available and accessible to both the assessor and the learner.
The following are required for workplace assessment:
|As far as phlebotomy is concerned the United States has the best and most comprehensive programmes. In addition, much of the educational material pertaining to phlebotomy is used by providers in South Africa. There are several phlebotomy accreditation bodies in the US
a few will be discussed here. The first part of the discussion on phlebotomy in the US focuses on phlebotomy accreditation bodies and the second on examples of phlebotomy programmes offered by institutions.
United States of America:
The American Medical Technologists (AMT) is a non-profit certification agency and professional membership association representing over 38,000 individuals in allied health care. Established in 1939, AMT has been providing allied health professionals with professional certification services and membership programs to enhance their professional and personal growth. AMT's mission is to issue certification credentials to Phlebotomy Technicians among a host of other professions. The description of a phlebotomist by the AMT very closely resembles the phlebotomist envisaged in the FETC: Phlebotomy Techniques in terms of competencies, skills, attitudes and values. The AMT describes the Phlebotomy Technician (phlebotomist) as an integral member of the medical laboratory team whose primary function is the collection of blood samples from patients by venipuncture or microtechniques. The phlebotomy technician facilitates the collection and transportation of laboratory specimens, and is often the patient's only contact with the medical laboratory. The need to assure quality and patient safety mandates strict professional behaviour and standards of practice for these practitioners.
The primary function of a phlebotomy technician is to obtain patient blood specimens by venipuncture or microtechniques. The phlebotomy technician aids in the collection and transportation of other laboratory specimens, and may be involved with patient data entry.
A phlebotomy technician also draws blood for transfusions, donations and research.
Phlebotomy technicians must like challenge and responsibility. They must be accurate, work well under pressure and communicate effectively. They must be able to deal with patients and be able to calm patients.
Safety is key and all safety precautions must be taken to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases.
Some of the duties performed by a Phlebotomy Technician are:
The phlebotomist may conduct interviews, take vital signs and screen donors at a blood bank.
A sister organisation with similar phlebotomy accreditation requirements is American Certification Agency for Healthcare Professionals (ACAHP), a voluntary, non-governmental, national certification agency established to recognize those practitioners who have attained a standard of knowledge through structured programs or work experience.
The mission of ACAHP, inter alia, is to:
The following is a brief description of a Phlebotomy Technician. The learner should have at least one year of phlebotomy experience including both venipuncture and dermal punctures, or successful completion of an accredited phlebotomy training program. The learner must have documented at least 100 successful venipunctures and 10 successful dermal punctures (Louisiana requires 25 dermal punctures). The FETC: Phlebotomy Techniques compare very favourably with the stipulations of the ACAHP in terms of competencies skills and values.
The same applies for the National Centre for Competency Testing (NCCT) in the United States, which is an independent certifying agency that administers national certification examinations with an emphasis on entry-level health care fields. Their general Phlebotomy Technician examination was among the first to be approved for California certification testing by the Laboratory Field Services Division of the California Department of Health Services.
The NCCT is an independent, third-party organization that has certified more than 150,000 individuals by examination throughout the U.S. since 1989 in several categories including that of the Phlebotomy Technician. Every candidate must meet the competencies in the FETC.
Phlebotomy Techniques address most of the concerns of the Coalition for Phlebotomy Personnel Standards which was established in 2003 and consists of representatives of clinical laboratory instrumentation manufacturing industry, specimen collection systems, laboratory membership organizations, phlebotomy certification agencies and government agencies. The NCCT and the AMT, among others, belong to this coalition.
The mission of the Coalition is to improve the quality of blood specimens collected for clinical testing and among its objectives are to:
Phlebotomy is an invasive procedure that requires significant skill and training to protect patients from injury and the consequences of results obtained from improperly collected specimens. The Coalition is dedicated to improving the quality of blood specimens collected through encouraging legislation that establishes minimum training requirements and certification/licensure for all phlebotomists.
The National Accreditation Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS) - now named the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) is committed to being the premier international agency for accreditation and approval of educational programs in the clinical laboratory sciences and related health professions through the involvement of expert volunteers and its dedication to public service.
The CLSI describes the functions of a phlebotomist below. As will be seen the FETC: Phlebotomy Techniques meets almost all the criteria set out by the organisation. According to the CLSI, the phlebotomist should be proficient in:
Community College of Rhode Island in the US provides the following training in phlebotomy. These are short courses compared to the FETC: Phlebotomy Techniques. This qualification is more comprehensive on the basis of competencies.
This course presents the theory and practice of phlebotomy, which includes such topics as: phlebotomists in health care delivery systems; medical terminology; infection control and safety; anatomy and physiology of body systems; collection equipment, reagents and interfering factors in blood collection; venipuncture and capillary puncture blood collection procedures and requisitioning. Laboratory experiences include venipuncture practice by vacutainer, syringe and winged collection set on adult and paediatric training arms. Skin puncture collection procedures using a variety of lancets to collect unopettes and microtainers, are performed. Blood smear preparation, bleeding time and quality control are also practiced.
This course includes collection and handling of non-blood specimens, quality assurance, specimen handling, specimen processing, communications techniques, legal issues, professionalism and arterial puncture. In the college laboratory, students perform specimen processing, blood smear preparation, blood culture collection, skin puncture and venipuncture collection. Students spend a total of 160 hours of clinical training in phlebotomy techniques at an affiliated site.
Flanagan Campus and Liston Campus offers a Phlebotomy Certificate. The Phlebotomy Certificate Program is a part-time, two semester program which is offered three times a year. The program includes lectures and laboratory experiences at the college as well as practical training at a clinical site. The course of instruction is designed to provide both the technical and interpersonal skills required for the competent and professional practice of phlebotomy. Graduates of the program are eligible to take a national certification examination in phlebotomy.
The rapid and expanded growth of scientific knowledge and technology has given rise to an increase in testing volume, the development of new testing systems, and commitment to quality assurance in the clinical laboratory. The phlebotomist plays a vital role by obtaining quality specimens, which enable the laboratory to deliver meaningful and accurate test results to assist the physician in diagnosis. Often, the phlebotomist is the only employee from the clinical laboratory visible to the patient, and therefore affects public relations.
The FETC: Phlebotomy Techniques is more extensive then the programmes offered by these institutions.
In the United Kingdom the National Association of Phlebotomists is a professional organisation supporting the development of phlebotomists. The National Association of Phlebotomists' definition of a Phlebotomist is a professional performing Venepuncture as a main role within a healthcare setting.
If an individual is interested in a career in Phlebotomy s/he contacts a local Hospital or Primary Care Trust and enquires about a Trainee Post. Courses offering Phlebotomy Training for non-medically trained students without a Phlebotomy job are not considered.
Training to become a Phlebotomist should take up to six months. This would include formal theoretical training and supervised practice, leading to the successful completion of the National Occupational Standards. Experience would be gained in all aspects of Phlebotomy inclusive of Domiciliary Visits, Satellite Clinics, Acute Ward Patients, Out Patient Clinics leading to experience in other specialised areas.
The following skills are required:
Desirable skills - (may change within Trusts):
The FETC: Phlebotomy Techniques covers much more than the theoretical and practical competencies outlined by the National Association of Phlebotomists.
A Career Services website in New Zealand lists the following specifications regarding a phlebotomist. It will be noted that this qualification covers almost all the aspects listed below.
Tasks & Duties:
Phlebotomists working in a medical laboratory may do some or all of the following:
Phlebotomists working as donor nurses may do some or all of the following:
Skills & Knowledge:
Phlebotomists need to have:
Phlebotomists need to be:
Skills are gained on the job. Phlebotomists may attend conferences and courses to keep their knowledge up to date. Phlebotomists who have worked for two years full-time in a laboratory and passed all the levels in their competency log-book, may sit the Qualified Phlebotomist Technician (QPT) exam provided by the New Zealand Institute of Medical Laboratory Science.
In Australia, the Health Business and Training Academy (HBTA), in conjunction with the Australian Health Professionals Training Solutions (AHPT Solutions), presents two qualifications in phlebotomy. AHPT Solutions is a training organisation based in Parramatta, Sydney. They are widely recognised in Australia as a provider of quality training in pathology specimen collection. HBTA's partnership with this organisation gives training and skills development and the chance for employment in the pathology specimen collection industry.
The first qualification is the Certificate IV in Pathology. This qualification is important where the collection of pathology specimens is a key component of on-job skills.
The many skills that are acquired are useful to obtaining employment in the industry, whether the individual is new to the workforce or planning a second or third career.
This qualification requires that applicants have completed the following units from Certificate III in Pathology:
Mandatory electives for collection:
Unlike the now-superseded qualification, the full Certificate III is not required. However, any individual who has completed the pathology assistance stream electives for their Certificate III in Pathology will need to complete at least the three electives identified above before they can enroll.
The second qualification is the Certificate III in Pathology. This qualification is important where the collection of pathology specimens is a key component of on-job skills. Not all occupations cover this important area and nurses in particular could do the short programmes to help them meet a critical industry need.
Core skills include:
One can also choose five electives from this list:
Courses are delivered in around Australia by combinations of practical workshops and self-paced learning.
The FETC: Phlebotomy Techniques is a combination of the Certificate III and the Certificate IV and covers almost all the competencies offered by these qualifications.
In Japan, in 2004, the Japanese Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards (JCCLS) published a standard phlebotomy guideline, which not only ensures the safety of the patients and phlebotomists but is adapted to the health-care setting in Japan. This phlebotomy standard is also essential for the standardization of clinical laboratory tests. This guideline was completed on the basis of current phlebotomy procedures widely in use in Japan using phlebotomy standards in the USA as references, while reconsidering their scientific reasoning as far as possible. The JCCLS used the standards of the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) of the United States of America.
The content of the guideline includes necessary facilities and equipment, a step by step safe but practical venipuncture procedure, an explanation of the individual steps, and other supplementary information such as alternative methods.
Africa et al:
There is no evidence or knowledge of any specific formal phlebotomy training in any other African country. This also applies to countries with developing economies on the other four continents.
On the whole the FETC: Phlebotomy Techniques compares more than favourably with international qualifications. It is much more comprehensive and intensive than most programmes offered or accredited by organisations/institutions abroad.
|On successful completion of this qualification learners may pursue the following qualifications:
Horizontal articulation is possible with the following qualifications, inter alia:
Vertical articulation is possible with the following qualifications:
|CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS|
|Anyone assessing a learner against this qualification must:
|As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this qualification was Reregistered in 2012; 2015.|
|This qualification replaces qualification 48732, "Further Education and Training Certificate: Phlebotomy Techniques", Level 4, 134 credits.|
|ID||UNIT STANDARD TITLE||PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL||NQF LEVEL||CREDITS|
|Core||252395||Care for customers in the medical pathology and blood transfusion fields||Level 3||NQF Level 03||4|
|Core||252400||Collect blood for medical pathology and blood transfusion||Level 4||NQF Level 04||15|
|Core||252399||Collect non-blood specimens for medical pathology analysis||Level 4||NQF Level 04||6|
|Core||252401||Comply with safety requirements in the medical pathology and blood transfusion fields||Level 4||NQF Level 04||5|
|Core||252396||Demonstrate knowledge of anatomy, physiology and medical terminology relevant to medical pathology and blood transfusion||Level 4||NQF Level 04||12|
|Core||252402||Demonstrate knowledge of medical ethical guidelines in the medical pathology and blood transfusion fields||Level 4||NQF Level 04||4|
|Core||252403||Provide HIV pre-test information and support||Level 4||NQF Level 04||8|
|Fundamental||119472||Accommodate audience and context needs in oral/signed communication||Level 3||NQF Level 03||5|
|Fundamental||119457||Interpret and use information from texts||Level 3||NQF Level 03||5|
|Fundamental||119467||Use language and communication in occupational learning programmes||Level 3||NQF Level 03||5|
|Fundamental||119465||Write/present/sign texts for a range of communicative contexts||Level 3||NQF Level 03||5|
|Fundamental||9015||Apply knowledge of statistics and probability to critically interrogate and effectively communicate findings on life related problems||Level 4||NQF Level 04||6|
|Fundamental||119462||Engage in sustained oral/signed communication and evaluate spoken/signed texts||Level 4||NQF Level 04||5|
|Fundamental||119469||Read/view, analyse and respond to a variety of texts||Level 4||NQF Level 04||5|
|Fundamental||9016||Represent analyse and calculate shape and motion in 2-and 3-dimensional space in different contexts||Level 4||NQF Level 04||4|
|Fundamental||119471||Use language and communication in occupational learning programmes||Level 4||NQF Level 04||5|
|Fundamental||7468||Use mathematics to investigate and monitor the financial aspects of personal, business, national and international issues||Level 4||NQF Level 04||6|
|Fundamental||119459||Write/present/sign for a wide range of contexts||Level 4||NQF Level 04||5|
|Elective||252398||Examine urine and sputum specimens under the microscope||Level 4||NQF Level 04||10|
|Elective||252394||Perform specialized phlebotomy procedures||Level 4||NQF Level 04||4|
|Elective||252392||Use Point of Care (POC) biomedical instrumentation systems and rapid testing kits for pathology or blood transfusion||Level 4||NQF Level 04||11|
|Elective||252397||Work in a blood donor clinic||Level 4||NQF Level 04||6|
|LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION:|
|When qualifications are replaced, some (but not all) of their learning programmes are moved to the replacement qualifications. If a learning programme appears to be missing from here, please check the replaced qualification.
|PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION:|
|This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.