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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

Manufacture instant food powder by means of a spray dryer 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
9188  Manufacture instant food powder by means of a spray dryer 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Food 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  30 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2004-10-13  2006-04-20  SAQA 0556/04 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2007-04-20   2010-04-20  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard is replaced by: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
123356  Manufacture a spray dried food powder from an evaporated mixture  Level 4  NQF Level 04  30   

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • demonstrate knowledge of the manufacturing of instant food powder by means of a spray dryer,
  • prepare to manufacture instant food powder by means of a spray dryer,
  • dry evaporated food by means of a spray dryer,
  • perform end of drying procedures.

    This unit standard is for anyone who has to manufacture instant food powder from evaporated mixture by means of a spray dryer.

    This unit will contribute to the full development of the learner within the food manufacturing environment by providing recognition, further mobility and transportability within the field of manufacturing and assembly. The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and upliftment within the food manufacturing and processing environment. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Description of required skills:

    Cleaning-in-place and cleaning out-of-place.
    Evaporation of a liquid food product by means of a falling or rising film evaporator.
    Representative sample taking for quality control purposes. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The scope of this unit standard is for anyone who has to manufacture instant food powder from evaporated food by means of a spray dryer.

    In the context of this unit standard, spray drying includes two-stage and three-stage spray drying equipment with a fluid-bed, during which instant food powder is manufactured. Instant food powder refers to agglomerated food powder and food powder that is easy to reconstitute.

    The level assigned to this unit standard is appropriate because the process requires a wide range of technical skills and offers a considerable choice of procedures. A broad knowledge base incorporating some theoretical concepts, analytical interpretation of information, informed judgement and a range of sometime innovative responses to concrete but often unfamiliar problems are employed. The application of this unit standard is to qualify the person for certification in advanced trade and technical occupations. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the manufacturing of instant food powder by means of a spray dryer. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The purpose of drying food and manufacturing instant food powder is explained according to standard food principles 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The explanation refers to:

    The advantages of instant food powder to consumers and manufacturers
    The effect of drying on the shelf life and sensory quality of the final product
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The main stages (steps) during spray drying of food are identified according to standard food principles 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The methods and principles of spray drying food for the manufacturing of instant food powder are identified and described according to standard food principles 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Spray drying includes:

    Two-stage spray drying combined with fluid bed drying
    Three-stage spray drying with an integrated fluid bed or integrated belt
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The operating principles of spray dryers are described according to standard food principles 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Spray dryers include:

    Two-stage spray dryers combined with a fluid bed
    Three-stage spray drying with an integrated fluid bed or integrated belt
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The components of the site-specific spray drying system are identified and the purpose of each component is explained 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Components include:

    Two-stage Three-stage
    Drying chamber, Primary and final drying chambers,
    Air heater, Retention and cooling chambers,
    Food concentrate tank, High pressure feed pump,
    High pressure pump, Nozzle arrangement,
    Atomiser, Air filters,
    Cyclones, Heater/cooler
    Air suction fans and filters, Air distributor,
    Vibrating fluid bed. Belt/fluid bed assembly,
    Powder discharge,
    Cyclone arrangement,
    Fans and heat recovery system,
    Fines recovery system,
    Sifting system
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The site-specific spray drying process, with its parameters, is described and explained according to standard food principles 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Instantising is defined and explained according to standard food principles 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The definition and explanation refer to :
  • The principles of the process,
  • The reasons for instantising,
  • A definition of agglomeration,
  • Equipment (with components and their functions ) and processes used for instantising and agglomeration,
  • The purpose of lecithinising and the process followed to lecithinise powder,
  • Factors that influence agglomeration and particle size
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. The importance of evaporation of the food prior to spray drying is explained according to standard food principles 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. Food safety practices and procedures for spray drying are identified and explained 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    10. The cleaning and sanitising requirements of a spray dryer are explained in line with standard food and manufacturer`s cleaning and sanitising principles 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The explanation covers wet and dry cleaning procedures
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Prepare to manufacture instant food powder by means of a spray dryer. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Personal preparation is done according to standard operating procedures 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Personal preparation refers to practices that ensure hygiene and personal and product safety
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The work area and the spray dryer are prepared according to standard operating procedures 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Preparation refers to cleaning and/or sanitising and pre-start up checks on the drying equipment
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The evaporated food is prepared for spray drying according to standard operating procedures 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The spray dryer`s parameters are set according to standard operating procedures 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The spray dryer is started up according to standard operating procedures 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Common problems are solved within scope of work 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Problem solving includes:
  • Recognition of signs of problems,
  • dentification of common problems, their causes and methods for prevention,
  • escription of the consequences of the problem
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Dry evaporated food by means of a spray dryer. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The evaporated food is dried according to standard operating procedures and safety requirements 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The spray drying equipment is handled and controlled according to standard operating procedures and safety requirements 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Quality assurance parameters for drying are monitored and controlled according to standard operating procedures 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Samples are taken according to standard operating procedures 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The site-specifications for the specific instant food powder are identified 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Results of sample analysis are interpreted and a conclusion is drawn on the efficiency of drying and the conformance of the powder to site-specifications 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Instant food powder is produced to conform to site-specifications 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. Records of the process are kept according to standard operating procedures 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. Where a spray dryer is operated simultaneously with other production actions or processes, the drying process is synchronized according to standard operating procedures 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    10. Common drying problems are solved within scope of work 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Problem solving includes:
  • Recognition of signs of problems,
  • Identification of common problems, their causes and methods for prevention,
  • Description of the consequences of the problem
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Perform end of drying procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The spray dryer is shut down according to standard operating procedures 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The drying system is cleaned and sanitised according to standard operating procedures and safety requirements 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The cleaning and sanitising materials and equipment are handled according to standard operating procedures and safety requirements 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Decisions to clean and sanitise the drying system, in conjunction with other processing equipment, are based on standard operating procedures 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Cleaning and sanitising refers to:
  • Daily cleaning procedures,
  • Weekly cleaning procedures,
  • Special cleaning procedures
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Quality assurance parameters for cleaning and sanitising are monitored and controlled according to standard operating procedures 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Parameters to be monitored and controlled include:
  • Temperatures,
  • Pressures,
  • Concentrations of cleaning agents
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Internal moderation.
  • External moderation.
  • An assessor, accredited by the relevant ETQA, will assess the learner`s competency.
  • Assessment procedures will be supplied by the ETQA in alignment with NSB requirements.
  • All assessment activities must be fair, so that all candidates have equal opportunities. Activities must be free of gender, ethnic or other bias.
  • Assessment and moderation procedures, activities and tools must be transparent, affordable and support development within the field, sub-field and NQF.
  • Questions and answers to determine theoretical knowledge are expected.
  • Examination of an assessment portfolio.
  • Reporting skills are demonstrated by effective communication, using verbal (language) and/or writing skills.
  • Direct observation in simulated or actual work conditions.
  • Practical demonstration of manufacturing instant food powder from evaporated food by means of spray drying. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is reflected within the assessment criteria of each specific outcome. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which response displays that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made by:
  • Identifying and solving problems within scope of work.


    Evident in the following specific outcomes:
    Prepare to manufacture instant food powder by means of a spray dryer.
    Dry evaporated food by means of a spray dryer. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community by:
  • Synchronising the spray drying process with other production actions


    Evident in the following specific outcomes:
    Dry evaporated food by means of a spray dryer. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Preparing for spray drying

    Evident in the following specific outcomes:
    Prepare to manufacture instant food powder by means of a spray dryer. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information by:
  • Taking samples and evaluating the results


    Evident in the following specific outcomes:
    Dry evaporated food by means of a spray dryer. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations by:
  • Keeping records

    Evident in the following specific outcomes:
    Dry evaporated food by means of a spray dryer. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Working according to safety requirements


    Evident in the following specific outcomes:

    Prepare to manufacture instant food powder by means of a spray dryer.
    Dry evaporated food by means of a spray dryer.
    Perform end of drying procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem solving contexts do not exist in isolation by:
  • Identifying and solving problems within scope of work


    Evident in the following specific outcomes:

    Prepare to manufacture instant food powder by means of a spray dryer.
    Dry evaporated food by means of a spray dryer. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large

    Evident in all the specific outcomes 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard has been replaced by unit standard 123356 , "Manufacture a spray dried food powder from an evaporated mixture", Level 4, 30 credits.

    1. Legal requirements:

    The following acts and/or codes, current and future regulations and amendments will be applicable:
  • Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, No. 54 of 1972,
  • Health Act, No 63 of 1977,
  • Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993,
  • SABS Food Hygiene Management Code 49: 1989.

    2. Definition of terms within this unit standard:

    Terminology and clarification/ explanation/ definition.

    Instant food powder:
    Refers to agglomerated food powder and food powder that is easy to reconstitute.

    Standard operating procedures:
    Refer to company procedures, prescribed procedures from the manufacturer, personal and food safety procedures, good manufacturing practices, best practices, applicable legislation, time frames, recipes and specifications.

    Three-stage spray drying system:
    Refers to an extended two-stage spray drying system in which the second drying stage is transferred into the base of the spray drying chamber, while the final drying and cooling is conducted in the third stage located outside the drying chamber. There are two types of tree-stage spray dryers, namely those with an integrated fluid bed and those with an integrated belt, both used for the final drying and cooling stage.

    Two-stage spray drying system:
    Refers to a spray drying system that consists of a spray drying chamber, cyclones and a fluid bed attachment. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  20206   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Spray Dried Food Product Technologist  Level 4  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L4  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FOODBEV 
    Elective  20521   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Dried Dairy Products Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.