SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of structural geology 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
376223  Demonstrate an understanding of structural geology 
ORIGINATOR
Task Team - Fabrication and Extraction 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Learners credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental aspects of structural geology.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of primary structures.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of folds and folding.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of faults and faulting.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of joints.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of lineations.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of foliations.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of plate tectonics and its relationship with structural features. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in the following:
  • Communication and Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental aspects of structural geology. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The principal structural features are identified, defined and described in terms of sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Folds.
  • Faults.
  • Joints.
  • Lineations.
  • Foliations
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The factors which may influence the deformation of a rock are identified and described in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The different responses of rocks to stress are identified and described in terms of sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Elastic.
  • Ductile.
  • Brittle.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The means to measure angular relationships in structural geology are described in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The means to measure true thickness of non-horizontal strata are described in terms of sound geological principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of primary structures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The concept of primary structures is discussed and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The common primary structures are identified, described and defined in the mining context. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Cross bedding.
  • Ripple marks.
  • Graded bedding.
  • Cracks.
  • Unconformities.
  • Pillow lavas.
  • Bedding (igneous and sedimentary).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The importance of primary structures in structural geology is discussed in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The concept of younging is discussed and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of folds and folding. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The principal components of a fold are identified, described and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The principle types of folds are identified, described and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Synform/Syncline.
  • Antiform/Anticline.
  • Isoclinal fold.
  • Concentric fold.
  • Ptgmatic folds.
  • Recumbant folds.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The conditions under which folds form are identified and described in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The geometric features that define a fold are identified, described, defined and the means to measure these described and demonstrated in terms of sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Dip and strike of axial plane.
  • Dip and strike of fold limbs.
  • Plunge and direction of plunge of fold axis.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Landforms that may be formed by folds or fold systems are identified and described in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Economic deposits that may be related to folding are identified, described and typical examples noted in the mining context. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The potential dangers associated with folding, within a mining environment, are identified and described in the context of mining operations. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of faults and faulting. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The principal components of a fault are identified, described and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The principal types of faults are identified, described and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Normal fault.
  • Reverse fault.
  • Thrust fault.
  • Lateral fault.
  • Transform faults.
  • Shear zones.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The conditions under which faults form are identified and described in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The means to measure fault movement are identified and described in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The geometric features that define a fault are identified, described, defined and the means to measure these described and demonstrated in accordance with sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Dip and strike of fault plane.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The secondary features that may be produced during faulting are identified, described and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Mylonite.
  • Breccia.
  • Slickensides.
  • Drag structures.
  • Fault filling.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Landforms that may be formed by faults or fault systems are identified and described in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Economic deposits that may be related to faulting are identified, described and typical examples noted in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The potential dangers, within a mining environment, associated with faulting are identified and described in terms of specified requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Demonstrate an understanding of joints. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The principal components of a joint/joint set are identified, described and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The principle types of joints are identified, described and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Extension joints.
  • Shear joint.
  • Contraction joints.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The conditions under which joints form are identified and described in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The geometric features that define a joint/joint set are identified, described, defined and the means to measure these described and demonstrated in terms of sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Dip and strike of joint plane.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The secondary features that may be produced during jointing are identified, described and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Joint filling.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Landforms that may be formed by joints or joint systems are identified and described in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Economic deposits that may be related to joints are identified, described and typical examples noted in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The potential dangers, within a mining environment, associated with joints are identified and described in terms of specified requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 6 
    Demonstrate an understanding of lineations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The principal components of a lineation are identified, described and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The principal types of lineations are identified, described and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Slickensides.
  • Mineral lineations.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The conditions under which lineations form are identified and described in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The geometric features that define a lineation are identified, described, defined and the means to measure these described and demonstrated in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The potential dangers, within a mining environment, associated with lineations are identified and described in terms of specified requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 7 
    Demonstrate an understanding of foliations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The principal components of a foliation are identified, described and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The principal types of foliations are identified, described and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Cleavage.
  • Schistosity.
  • Differential layering/gneissosity.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The conditions under which foliations form are identified and described in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The geometric features that define a foliation are identified, described, defined and the means to measure these described and demonstrated in terms of sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Dip and strike.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The potential dangers, within a mining environment, associated with a foliation are identified and described in terms of specified requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 8 
    Demonstrate an understanding of plate tectonics and its relationship with structural features. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The process of plate tectonics is discussed and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The principal components of the plate tectonic model are identified and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Midoceanic ridge.
  • Subduction zone.
  • Continental plate.
  • Oceanic plate.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The principal continental and oceanic plates found on the Earth's surface today are identified in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The principle types of plate margin are identified and defined in terms of sound geological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Convergent.
  • Divergent.
  • Transform.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The tectonic processes common to specific plate tectonic environments are identified and their causes explained in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The principal structural forms found within individual plate tectonic settings are identified in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The stages within the development of a plate tectonic cycle (a Wilson Cycle) are discussed in terms of sound geological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The principal structures developed during the individual stages of a Wilson Cycle are identified, discussed and examples provided in terms of sound geological principles. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or by an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the context of the unit standard:

    Knowledge and understanding of:
  • The fundamental aspects of structural geology.
  • Primary structures.
  • Folds and folding.
  • Faults and faulting.
  • Joints.
  • Lineations.
  • Foliations.
  • Plate tectonics and its relationship with structural features.

    Causes and effects (Safety and Health):
  • Use of equipment.
  • Use of personal protective equipment.
  • Adherence to safety requirements.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks.

    Procedures and techniques:
  • Methods of collecting, analysing, organising, summarising and presenting data.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies and standards:
  • Safety, health and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking:
  • The ability of the learner to identify characteristics of individual structural types, measure angular relationships and determine original relationships between strata, contributes to the learner's proficiency in problem solving. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community:
  • An understanding of the importance of structural features as potential hazards can affect the team or group as a whole. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively:
  • The ability of the learner to integrate the geological data from a variety of structural features indicates that the learner can organise and manage activities. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information:
  • The ability of the learner to integrate geological data from a variety of structural features will indicate his/her ability to collect, analyse and evaluate information. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations:
  • The ability of the learner to reconcile the data from various sources pertaining to structural geology will indicate his/her proficiency in effective communication. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others:
  • The analysis of the geological data pertaining to the various structural types described will indicate the learners understanding of science and technology. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation:
  • The ability of the learner to understand the physical characteristics of individual structural types, their interrelationships and environments where they develop will contribute to their understanding of the world as an interrelated system. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts, e.g. Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives/Instructions.
  • Guidelines issued by the Chief Inspector of Mines.

    Site Specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH and S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications.

    Specified Requirements and/or Laid Down Procedures:
  • Training manuals.
  • Education manuals, including geological textbooks.
  • Geological illustrations.

    Due to the wide variation and differences in structural geology, it is necessary to have a large number of specific outcomes in order to ensure the learner has a complete understanding of the subject. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  77963   Further Education and Training Certificate: Mining/Exploration Geology  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.