SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate understanding of brake systems, and brake tests 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256204  Demonstrate understanding of brake systems, and brake tests 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Transport and Logistics Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 11 - Services Transport, Operations and Logistics 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people starting on a learning pathway in the rail transport industry (train driving), and contributes towards the foundational knowledge, skills and values required for access to, and mobility and progression within the industry. It is intended to describe key skills and knowledge requirements for those Drivers who operate in defined working environments, in compliance with legislative requirements, codes and practices.

This unit standard will recognise the essential knowledge and skills required to identify potential problems with brake systems, and assist with brake tests.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate understanding of the principles of braking systems.
  • Demonstrate understanding of brake system components.
  • Identify and rectify sub-standard conditions on brake systems.
  • Ensure the serviceability of the brakes. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communications at NQF Level 3.
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Specific range statements are provided in the body of the unit standard where they apply to particular specific outcomes or assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate understanding of the principles of braking systems. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Braking systems include:
  • Vacuum and air brake systems. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The purpose of brake systems is explained with reference to the control of vehicles during shunt and other movements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Purpose includes:
  • Speed control; retarding vehicle movement; bring to a standstill; keep at a standstill.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The importance of pressure in the operation of brake systems is explained with reference to pressure and pressure differences, air flow, and the activation of the brake system. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The process of charging a brake system, and the importance of minimum and maximum air pressure values, is explained with reference the operation of the braking system. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The key differences in the operation of air and vacuum braking systems are explained with reference to air flow, and the creation of the pressure variation sensed by the train brake system. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Brake system includes:
  • Diaphragm/release valve; cylinder, piston and brake block.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The creation of pressure or vacuum is explained with reference to the locomotive and auxiliary equipment, in accordance with operating manuals and/or procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Auxiliary equipment includes:
  • Compressor, exhauster.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The typical application of vacuum and air brake systems is explained with reference to their strengths, limitations and relative effectiveness. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The purpose and method of operation of backup brake systems is explained with reference to their place in the overall braking system. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Brakes include:
  • Hand brake; continuous automatic brake.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The method for manually releasing brakes is explained with reference to specific operating conditions and the reason for doing so. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Conditions include but are not limited to:
  • Moving vehicles without coupling through; prevention of wheel skidding; sub-standard condition when brake is not working.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate understanding of brake system components. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The key components of the brake systems are identified and explained in terms of their purpose and function in the system. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Components include:

    Train pipe; brake/vacuum pipes; rubber seal; angle cocks; brake valve cut-out cock; release valves.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Important settings at cut-out cocks in the system are described in terms of the position and effect on the system. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Position includes:
  • Open, closed.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The operation of the train brake system is described in accordance with standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Coupling and uncoupling of brake systems is described in accordance with safety precautions and site specific procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Safety precautions include:
  • End-profile of the vehicles; procedure to uncouple under pressure.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Consequences of not following correct procedures are described in terms of operational safety and/or damage to equipment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Coupling and uncoupling is demonstrated in accordance with manufacturer's specifications and site specific procedures. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate knowledge of sub-standard conditions on brake systems. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Sub-standard conditions are listed and described with reference to indications and effects. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Sub-standard conditions include but are not limited to:
  • Insufficient vacuum/air pressure; leakages; defective components; poor practices.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Procedures for rectifying or responding to sub-standard conditions are identified and explained with reference to own role and responsibilities for a specific operating environment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Specific tests to check for external and internal leakages are described and explained in terms of prescribed procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The consequences of undiscovered internal leakages are explained with reference to the impact on the effectiveness of the brake system. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The impact of defective components on the brake system is explained with reference to the effect it has on the brake system. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Ways of detecting defective components are listed and described in accordance with standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Specific cases of poor practice are identified and explained in terms of their effect on the brake system, and possible consequences for operational safety and equipment. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Poor practices include but are not limited to:
  • Jamming the release valves open (wedging); blockages in the vacuum pipe; inadequate charging; non-calibrated gauges to test brake pressure.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Ensure the serviceability of the brakes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Different types of brake tests are listed and described with reference to their purpose and interval. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Tests include:
  • "A" test; "B" test; "C" test (air brake); continuous brake test (vacuum).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Own role and responsibilities for assisting in brake tests is described in accordance with site specific procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Documentation to be completed after each test is identified and its importance described for train movement authority. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    A break test is conducted with reference to organisational and equipment specific operating procedures. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    Accreditation Options:
  • Providers of learning towards this unit standard will need to meet the accreditation requirements of the relevant ETQA.
  • An individual wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that has been accredited by a relevant ETQA.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with a relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be registered and accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.

    Moderation Option:

    > The moderation requirements of the relevant ETQA must be met in order to award credit to learners for this unit standard. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking by testing brakes and rectifying faults. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community by conducting brake tests in close relation with other team members. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Following specific test procedures and sequences, demanding organisation and responsible execution of activities. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note:
  • Essential part of testing. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by testing the brakes which involves the use of technology in the interests of individual, team and public safety. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Notes to Assessors:

    Assessors should keep the following general principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember we want to declare the person competent in terms of the title. Where assessment at title level is unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes.
  • Make sure that evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to show the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Rather make sure the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • The assessment criteria provide the specifications against which assessment judgements should be made. In most cases, knowledge can be inferred from the quality of the performances, but in other cases, knowledge and understanding will have to be tested through questioning techniques. Where this is required, there will be assessment criteria to specify the standard required.
  • The task of the assessor is to gather sufficient evidence, of the prescribed type and quality, as specified in this unit standard, that the candidate can achieve the outcomes again and again and again. This means assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance is reproducible.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well documented principles of assessment: Appropriateness, fairness, manageability, integration into work or learning, validity, direct, authentic, sufficient, systematic, open and consistent.

    The following particular issues should be taken into consideration when assessing against this unit standard:
  • Methods of assessment should include:
    > Written tests/case studies.
    > Oral/on-the-job.
    > In situ (on-the-job) observations.
    > Simulation.
    > Role-play/structured classroom discussions and oral tests.
  • These methods must be carefully selected based on the purpose of the assessment (for example, the written method could be used to assess knowledge or on-the-job demonstration for practical competence). 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  61849   Further Education and Training Certificate: Train Driving  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Rail Traction Training Pty Ltd 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.