SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Apply knowledge of refrigeration and cold chain management for perishable produce exportation 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243867  Apply knowledge of refrigeration and cold chain management for perishable produce exportation 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Secondary Agriculture: Processing 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 01 - Agriculture and Nature Conservation Secondary Agriculture 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  20 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Explain how the cold chain allows the exportation of perishable products over long distances.
  • Outline the relevant legislation that regulates the cold chain.
  • Describe the physiological changes that occur in perishable produce.
  • Indicate the basic operation of refrigeration and the maintenance of the cold chain.
  • Describe the infrastructure and equipment necessary for cold chain management. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are competent in Mathematical Literacy and Communication at NQF Level 3. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Outline the background and necessity for the cold chain. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    The background includes but is not limited to:
  • History of SA's produce exports, benefits of cold chain, reasons for the term "chain", components of the cold chain, spread and multiplication of micro organisms, technological advances. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    A brief history of South Africa's perishable produce exportation and the limitations that the lack of refrigeration had on the varieties that could be successfully exported, is indicated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The benefits to perishable produce exportation that the cold chain now provides, are detailed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The benefits include but are not limited to:
  • Maintain produce quality, reduce distance barriers for exportation, increase range of exports, prolong shelf life, facilitate food safety.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The reasons why the term "chain" is given to the collective components of the cold chain and the consequences of a breakdown in any of these "links" are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The role that the cold chain plays in minimising the spread and multiplication of micro organisms in a consignment of perishable produce is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The technological advances in cold chain monitoring and control equipment are described and the ways in which this superior control benefits the maintenance of perishable produce quality is explained. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Describe the objectives of the legislation that provides for the regulation and management of the perishable produce cold chain. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    The objectives include but are not limited to:
  • PPECB act and regulations, standards, protocols, loading and carrying temperature requirements manual (Blue book) Codex Alimentarius, CSC (Container Safety Convention), EU 1148, dispensations, quality assurance systems, traceability and tracking. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The aim of the PPECB Act, with regard to the establishment and maintenance of the cold chain is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The regulations that emanate from the PPECB Act are detailed and the authority that is vested in the board to ensure that these regulations are adhered to, is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The standards that define the technical aspects of the cold chain and the methods of assessing these are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The significance of the CSC regulations are indicated and the frequency of inspections and requirements that must be met, are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The PPECB's responsibility to ensure adherence of the various protocols that are enacted, is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The reasons why certain dispensations are granted, and the procedures for the implementation of these are indicated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The scope of the loading and carrying temperature requirements manual is indicated and the necessity of adherence to these regulations is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The role that the Codex Alimentarius has in the determination of the cold chain regulations and standards is explained and examples of applicable standards are listed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The provisions of the EU 1148 international standards that have particular significance to the cold chain are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    Examples of export markets that require an exporter to institute an approved quality assurance system are detailed and their processes that assist in the maintenance of the cold chain are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    The reasons why traceability and tracking are preconditions for the majority of South Africa's export markets and the basic operation of these functions are explained. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Recognise the basic physiological processes that occur in perishable produce. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    The physiological processes include but are not limited to:
  • Climacteric and non-climacteric, senescence (post harvest aging), respiration, colour changes: maturity, soft, moisture content, sugar content, acid content, ratio of sugar to acid, processes in chemical and gaseous exchange, meat and fish - rigor mortis, sensory indications of deterioration. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The contrasting physiological characteristics of climacteric and non-climacteric produce are described and the significance that these play in the provision of the cold chain for a consignment is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The process of senescence and its effect on the physiological state of produce is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The process of respiration and the reasons why it occurs, are described and the resultant changes to the physiology of the produce are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The conditions that bring about the external colour change in various fruit varieties are indicated and the simultaneous internal changes that occur, are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The effects that maturation has on the sugar and acid content of fruit and the changes in their relative ratios are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The chemical and gaseous exchange that occurs in perishable produce is described and the factors that causes the onset of this condition are detailed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The various physiological changes that occur when the minimum temperature threshold of a particular produce is exceeded, are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The processes of rigor mortis that occur in meat and fish are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The sensory indications of a deterioration in the quality of meat and fish are described. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Indicate the relationship between the storage environment and the physiological processes in perishable produce. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    The physiological processes include but are not limited to:
  • TTT (Time Temperature Tolerance)-varies per product, cold damage, RH (Relative Humidity), process of desiccation, condensation, relative humidity calculation, relative humidity levels required. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The effects that lowering the pulp temperature has on the physiological processes of perishable produce is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    A brief description of pre cooling is given and the reasons why perishable produce must be pre cooled before transportation or storage are indicated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The reasons why the TTT of various perishable produce vary and the importance of ensuring that the temperature remains within the prescribed limits, are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The changes to the storage environment, when the perishable produce effects a gaseous exchange, is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The phenomenon of Relative Humidity (RH) is described and the factors that effect RH levels are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The methods of calculating relative humidity utilising a psychometric chart are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The RH levels within the intercellular structure of perishable produce are described and the relationship between the ambient RH and the onset of senescence is indicated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The process of desiccation and the necessity of maintaining the humidity levels to minimise moisture losses from a consignment are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The factors that lead to condensation and the inherent risks that are coupled to the formation of condensation are explained. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Show an understanding of the basic principles of refrigeration. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    The range includes but is not limited to:
  • Chilling and freezing, types of chilling, types of freezing, refrigeration process, cooling cycle, factors that constitute the heat load, air circulation. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The terms chilling and freezing are described and the reasons why perishable produce is usually chilled not frozen, is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The various types of chilling and freezing that are used to lower the temperature of produce are detailed and the pros and cons of each type is explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The range of chilling and freezing includes but is not limited to:
  • Chilling: forced air cooling, suction air cooling, hydro cooling, room cooling.
  • Freezing: blast freezing, cryogenic freezing, hydro freezing (brine), plate freezing.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The basic operation of the refrigeration process is described and the components that are used in the process are detailed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The components include but are not limited to:
  • Compressors, expansion valves, thermostats, evaporators, condensers, insulation.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The various stages in the cooling cycle are indicated and the function of each stage in the cycle is described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The various factors that constitute the heat load within a cold store or container are detailed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The factors include but are not limited to:
  • Plant physiology, seals, heat transfer from surfaces, relative humidity management, lighting, doors opening, ventilation fans.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The importance of air circulation as the primary cooling agent and heat assimilator is described. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 6 
    Describe the temperature measurements and environmental controls that are used in the storage and transporting of perishable produce. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    The range includes but is not limited to:
  • Set point temperature, delivery air temperature, return air temperature, space air temperatures, regular atmosphere, controlled atmosphere, modified atmosphere, danger of controlled or modified atmosphere, fresh air ventilation. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    A description of the "set point temperature" is given and the function of the setting is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The "delivery air temperature" is described and the point in the cooling cycle where this is determined, is indicated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The "return air temperature" is described and the point in the cooling cycle where this is determined, is indicated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The significance of "space air temperatures" is explained and the areas in a cold store or container where these temperatures would require confirming, are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The necessity to measure the "pulp" or product temperature is indicated and the reasons for measuring the product, in addition to the delivery and return temperatures are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The situations where fresh produce requires fresh air ventilation are detailed and the reasons for introducing fresh air are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The various types of "atmospheres" in which perishable produce is stored and transported are described and the particular reasons for using these are explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The atmospheres include but are not limited to:
  • Regular atmosphere, modified atmosphere, controlled atmosphere.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The danger of entering a container with either controlled or modified atmosphere, before the container has been purged, is explained. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 7 
    Identify the cold chain infrastructure and equipment necessary for the storage and transporting of perishable produce. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    The infrastructure and equipment includes but is not limited to:
  • Types of containers, types of vessels, cold storage facilities, RRMT (Refrigerated Road Motor Transport), air freight containers, types of instrumentation, calibration, plastic/air curtains, suction fans. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The different cold storage facilities that are used for perishable produce and their individual characteristics are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The facilities include but are not limited to:
  • Packhouse cold stores, depots and terminals.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The various types of containers that are used to convey perishable produce are detailed and their particular functions are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The containers include but are not limited to:
  • 6 metre, 12 metre, ventilated, refrigerated, regular atmosphere, controlled atmosphere, super freezer, deep frozen, reefer (with cooling unit), open sides (flat rack), general.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The various types of vessels that are used to convey perishable produce are detailed and their specific characteristics are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The vessels include but are not limited to:
  • Reefer, container, general purpose.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The basic construction and equipment that a RRMT has fitted to ensure the maintenance of the cold chain is described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The cold chain facilities that air freight containers are equipped with, are described. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 8 
    Identify the equipment and instrumentation necessary for the maintenance of the cold chain. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    The range includes but is not limited to:
  • Refrigeration components, refrigerants, types of instrumentation, calibration, plastic/air curtains, air lock in a refrigerated vessel, suction fans. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The components that are used in the refrigeration process and their individual functions are detailed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The components include but are not limited to:
  • Compressors, expansion valves, thermostats, evaporators, condensers, insulation.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The types of refrigerants utilised in the maintenance of the cold chain, including the various ranges, applications and their differences are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The various types of instrumentation that are used to monitor the cold chain and its associated environment are detailed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The instrumentation includes but is not limited to:
  • Temperature recorders, temperature probes, thermometers, relative humidity indicators, relative humidity recorders, CO2 recorders, anemometers.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The prime importance of calibrating all measuring and recording instrumentation is indicated and the consequences of ignoring this are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The procedures to calibrate a cold chain thermometer, including all the necessary equipment, are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The function of plastic/air curtains and the positions where they would typically be installed in a cold store are indicated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The function of suction fans and the positions where they would typically be installed are described. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
  • Reflecting on and exploring a variety of strategies to learn more effectively.
  • Participating as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities.
  • Being culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts.
  • Exploring education and career opportunities.
  • Developing entrepreneurial opportunities. 

  • UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    The learner is able to identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made by:
  • Applying the appropriate temperature tolerance time when initiating the pre cooling of perishable produce. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    The learner is able to work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or communities by:
  • Participating with others in the verifying of the infrastructural compliance of a cold storage facility. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    The learner is able to organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Following the sequential verification procedures when evaluating the various components of the cold chain. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    The learner is able to collect, organise and critically evaluate information by:
  • Noting the various data collected from a cold chain examination and compile a report on the compliance of the facility. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    The learner is able to communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentation by:
  • Reporting on the status of the cold chain monitoring procedures and any improvements that could be effected. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    The learner is able to use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Utilising the temperature and relative humidity logging technology to ascertain any shortcomings in the cold chain management. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    The learner is able to demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognizing that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • Evident in all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    The learner is able to contribute to the full personal development of themselves and the social and economic development of the society at large.
  • Evident in all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    The Learner:
  • Is expected to perform the specific outcomes reflected in this unit standard without direct supervision.
  • Should have access to work site procedures.
  • Should demonstrate an application of ethics and values.
  • Must apply basic principles of general safety and customer care.
  • Should demonstrate an awareness of the expectations and obligations of basic employee/employer relations including industrial relations principles.

    At this level the communication/reporting of issues arising in the workplace, is embedded in the specific outcomes and the related assessment criteria.

    It is understood that, due to the nature of the work environment and the skills level of the learner, that the aspects of teamwork form an integral part of the necessary specific outcomes and related assessment criteria.

    The points included under the notes, should be included when the qualifying learners are being assessed. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  58350   Further Education and Training Certificate: Perishable Produce Exportation  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  AgriSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.