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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Understand the operating principles, processes and variables associated with wet end operations in the pulp and paper industry 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
114255  Understand the operating principles, processes and variables associated with wet end operations in the pulp and paper industry 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Pulp and Paper 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  15 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Qualifying learners will be able to understand the operating principles, processes and variables associated with wet end operations. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
Learners attempting this unit standard are required to understand process descriptions, physical phenomena, process equipment, interacting variables and product properties. It is therefore required that they are competent in basic scientific theory and are familiar with paper machine operations. 

UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
This Unit Standard covers the understanding of the wet end from machine chest to the first drying cylinder 

Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
Qualifying learners are able to discuss and explain the basic equipment and process configuration. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
Qualifying learners are able to discuss and explain the basic equipment and process configuration for wet end operations. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Generic and alternative wet end arrangements are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Cleaning, screening, thick-stock metering, de-aeration, headboxes, forming and dewatering, pressing, water recirculation systems, fibre recovery, vacuum systems, steam systems
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Equipment used for wet end operations is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Thick-stock metering equipment, dearation systems, headboxes, cleaners, screens, forming and dewatering equipment, presses, dandyroll, vacuum equipment, machine clothing, steam systems
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The equipment arrangement for wet end operations is discussed and explained. 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
Learners are able to discuss and explain the inputs to wet end operations. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The properties of fibrous materials (furnish) required for wet end operations are discussed and explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Utilities required for the wet end operations are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Water, power, air, steam, vacuum
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The supply and function of chemicals for wet end operations are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Fillers, retention and drainage aids, charge control agents, strength additives, dyes, biocides, defoamers, OBA (optical brightening agents), sizing agents.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
Learners are able to discuss and explain the process variables and their interrelationships. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
Learners are able to discuss and explain the process variables and their interrelationships and effect on product properties for the different wet end operations. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The process variables and their effect on product quality for wet end operations are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Temperature, consistency, pH, pressure, chemical addition, charge demand
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. The interrelationships of the process variables for the wet end operations are discussed and explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. Properties of the web leaving the press section, as measured at the dry end, is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Consistency, formation, mass and moisture profiles (machine direction and cross direction), fibre orientation, physical properties
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
Learners are able to discuss and explain typical process problems and typical solutions. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
Learners are able to discuss and explain typical process problems and typical solutions to the problems. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Typical product deviations leaving the process are discussed and explained and solutions are offered. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Consistency, formation, machine direction or cross direction variations, basis mass, temperature, ash content, ash distribution
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Typical equipment problems within the process are discussed and explained and solutions are offered. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Former problems, distributor problems, etc.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. Typical raw material problems within the process are discussed and explained and solutions are offered. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Stock freeness, mass rate, dirt.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. Environmental impacts are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Gaseous emissions, liquid emissions.
 


UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.
Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
Things the learner knows and can explain:
Names, Functions and Locations of
  • The equipment pertaining screening, cleaning, de-aeration, approach flow, forming, pressing, chemical addition and control and dewatering operations

    Description, properties and characteristics of
  • Raw Materials (pulp suspension, chemicals)
  • Product/s [moist paper web]
  • Process Equipment (screening, cleaning, de-aeration, approach flow, forming, pressing, chemical addition and control and dewatering)
  • A Typical layout of a wet end operations plant for different paper making configurations.

    The Purpose of the
  • Process in terms of product/s, efficiencies and quality.

    Causes, effects and implications of
  • The process variables/conditions associated screening, cleaning, de-aeration, approach flow, forming, pressing, chemical addition and control and dewatering equipment
  • Raw Material (pulp and chemicals)
  • Product Variables (moisture, formation, fibre orientation)
  • Hazards

    Interrelationships
  • Between the variables of wet end operations, the process equipment and process conditions.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements and policies related to:
  • Environmental impact of gaseous and liquid emissions

    Theory: rules, principles, laws
  • Length
  • Temperature
  • PH
  • Fluid mechanics
  • Properties of non-Newtonian fluids
  • Mass balances
  • Energy balances
  • Filtration theory
  • Force 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems
  • Describe typical wet end operations process problems and solutions to these problems
  • Describe the basic scientific theory behind typical processes and problems and generate alternative solutions based on theory. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage self and activities
  • Participate in life long learning
  • Develop analytic skills in managing process operations 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organize and critically evaluate information
  • Use various sources of information pertaining to wet end operations including basic scientific and engineering theory 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively
  • Give written or oral descriptions pertaining to wet end operations
  • Respond to questions
  • Identify and solve problems 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  48644   Further Education and Training Certificate: Paper, Board or Tissue Manufacturing  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2007-02-11  Was FPMSETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Elective  61949   Further Education and Training Certificate: Pulp and Paper Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  FPMSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. MPACT 
    2. Mpact Operations Paper Springs 
    3. Nteko Investments 
    4. SAPPI LTD 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.