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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Understand the operating principles, processes and variables associated with the drying of paper, board or tissue products 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
114250  Understand the operating principles, processes and variables associated with the drying of paper, board or tissue products 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Pulp and Paper 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Qualifying learners will be able to understand the operating principles, the processes and the variables of drying paper, board or tissue. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
Learners attempting this unit standard are required to understand process descriptions, physical phenomena, process equipment, interacting variables and product properties. It is therefore required that they are competent in basic scientific theory and are familiar with paper machine operations. 

UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
This unit standard covers the understanding of the processes and the variables in drying paper, board or tissue products. 

Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
Qualifying learners are able to discuss and explain the basic equipment and process configuration. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
Qualifying learners are able to discuss and explain the basic equipment and process configuration of drying paper, board or tissue. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Generic and alternative drying methods are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Contact, radiation, impingement.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Equipment used for drying paper is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Cylinders, impingement equipment, TAD`s, radiators, steam systems, moisture removal, size press systems.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The equipment arrangement for each drying method is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Contact, radiation, impingement.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
Qualifying learners are able to discuss and explain the inputs to drying processes. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The fibrous materials required for drying processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Paper, tissue, board, moisture content.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Utilities required for the processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Steam, electricity, air, gas.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The preparation and supply of chemicals to the drying process is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Starch, OBA, synthetic, sizing agents, pigment coating, release agents, resins, felt cleaners.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. Steam properties as applied to drying are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Pressure, temperature, superheat, dry content.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
Learners are able to discuss and explain the process variables. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
Learners are able to discuss and explain the process variables, their interrelationships and their effect on product properties for the different drying processes. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The drying variables for each drying process are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Variables: temperature, pressure, partial pressure, moisture content, humidity, airflow processes: contact, radiation, impingement.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. The basic principles of heat transfer and moisture removal are qualitatively discussed and explained. 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
Learners are able to discuss and explain the effects of application of surface treatments. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
Learners are able to discuss and explain the effects of application of surface treatments to the drying of paper, board and tissue. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Surface treatment chemical application is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Starch, pigment coating, pond size press, film press, blade coaters, rod coaters.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. The effect of surface chemical application on the drying process is discussed and explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The effect of surface chemical application on the product properties is discussed and explained. 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
Learners are able to discuss and explain process problems and typical solutions to the problems. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Typical product deviations leaving the process are discussed and explained and solutions are offered. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Typical equipment problems within the process are discussed and explained and solutions are offered. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. Typical raw material problems within the process are discussed and explained and solutions are offered. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. Environmental impacts are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Gas emissions, liquid emissions.
 


UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.
Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
Things the learner knows and can explain:

Names, Functions and Locations of:
  • The equipment pertaining to drying cylinders, steam systems, condensate systems, radiation energy [IR], impingement drying and through drying systems.

    Description, properties and characteristics of:
  • Raw Materials (moist paper, board and tissue)
  • Product/s [paper board and tissue]
  • Process Equipment (drying cylinders, steam systems, condensate systems, radiation energy [IR], impingement drying and through drying systems)
  • A typical layout of a drying of paper, board and tissue products plant.

    The Purpose of the:
  • Process in terms of product/s, efficiencies and quality.

    Causes, effects and implications of:
  • The process variables/conditions associated drying cylinders, steam systems, condensate systems, radiation energy [IR], impingement drying and through drying systems.
  • Raw Material (moist paper, board and tissue)
  • Product Variables (paper, board and tissue)
  • Hazards

    Interrelationships:
  • Between the variables of drying of paper, board and tissue products, the process equipment and process conditions.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements and policies related to:
  • Environmental impact of gaseous and liquid emissions

    Theory: rules, principles, laws:
  • Length
  • Temperature
  • Basic fluid flow
  • Heat transfer
  • Mass transfer
  • Mass balancing
  • Energy balancing
  • Interactions between moist paper and moist air
  • Chemical bonding between cellulose and water [hydrogen bonding]
  • Radiation theory 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems:
  • Describe typical drying of paper, board and tissue products process problems and solutions to these problems
  • Describe the basic scientific theory behind typical processes and problems and generate alternative solutions based on theory 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage self and activities:
  • Participate in life long learning
  • Develop analytic skills in managing process operations 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organize and critically evaluate information:
  • Use various sources of information pertaining to drying of paper, board and tissue products including basic scientific and engineering theory 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively:
  • Give written or oral descriptions pertaining to drying of paper, board and tissue products
  • Respond to questions
  • Identify and solve problems 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  48644   Further Education and Training Certificate: Paper, Board or Tissue Manufacturing  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2007-02-11  Was FPMSETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Elective  61971   National Certificate: Pulp and Paper Operations  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FPMSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Ehlanzeni TVET College 
    2. Eskilz College (Pty) Ltd 
    3. MPACT 
    4. Mpact Operations Paper Springs 
    5. Nteko Investments 
    6. SAPPI LTD 
    7. VEB CELE & Associates (Pty) Ltd 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.